Hong Kong's security laws have led to a new era of Chinese regulation


Beijing's new rules remain to cover the actions of protesters and their supporters


Beijing has imposed a major limitation of national security rules on Hong Kong, opening a new chapter of Chinese control over the semi-autonomous region, once called political freedom and civil liberties.

Chinese and Hong Kong officials said the law only targets "narrow behaviors," but the full text of the law - which was released only after it was put into effect late on Tuesday - shows it is subject to vaguely defined crimes. Operations. As far as security is concerned. The harshest punishment is prison life.

The most worrying aspect of the law is the removal of firewalls that separate China from the mainland under the "one country two systems" framework, bringing Chinese law and national security agencies to Hong Kong. Others say that its aim is to fundamentally change Hong Kong society with the needs of "national security education" in schools, the media, and the Internet.

Here are the key parts of the new law:

A widely defined crime
The law is so broad that, in segregation, vandalism, terrorism, and collusion with foreign powers that endanger national security, it can target previously protected speech forms - such as signing one. The rules also include the actions of protesters and their supporters in last year's protests.

For example, foreign corporations or authorities may consider adopting sanctions against the Hong Kong or Beijing government, or in general prompting Hong Kong residents to "hate" the Beijing or Hong Kong government. The tactic used by protesters last year to disrupt public transport is considered terrorism.

The law follows broad definitions of national security used in mainland China, where such measures are often used against political dissenters. The ambiguity of the definitions is even more pronounced as Chinese officials, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, have the final say on interpreting the law.

Extradition of suspects to mainland China
Most national security cases are prosecuted in Hong Kong courts, but the central government can monitor foreign interference on "complex matters" and "serious situations" with the Hong Kong government, as well as cases where China faces "serious" threats. .

Although the law does not explicitly allow for extradition, the Supreme People's Court of China said it could name "relevant courts" to handle litigation. In a briefing on the law, the executive director of the Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office, Zhang Xiang, said Wednesday that the accused could be prosecuted in mainland China.

The possibility of extradition of residents in Chinese political courts with a penalty rate of 99% prompted the first protest movement last year.

A powerful Chinese agent working in Hong Kong
Under the law, the National Security Office, a division of China's National Security Service, can operate in Hong Kong, and its agents are immune to local laws when performing their duties. All government departments in Hong Kong should cooperate with the office.

The office is accused of taking "necessary steps" to strengthen the management of foreign NGOs and media. In mainland China, national security organs often block domestic and foreign media, while news agencies and human rights organizations can operate freely and independently in Hong Kong.

Extended police powers
The law empowers the new police department to prohibit residents from overseas activities, to provide personal information to service providers, foreign political agencies or authorities, and to have greater authority in matters of national security that require the delegation of powers.

The National Security Police can search houses and electronic equipment without any warrants, secret surveillance and intercepted communications with the permission of the Hong Kong Chief Executive Officer.

The trial and trial were closed without a jury

The law allows for a jury trial on matters of national security, which require "national secrets" or "foreign factors" or the protection of gamblers approved by the Hong Kong Justice Secretary. A panel of three judges oversees the case.

Journals and the public can be prevented from seeing certain things that are “state secrets” or threats to the public order. Closed-door tests are mainly used in China in cases of political breakdown.

Legal experts are also concerned about the independence of courts overseeing national security matters. Hong Kong's chief executive, Carrie Lam, responds directly to Beijing and nominates judges who can be removed if they appear to endanger national security in speech or conduct.

The law can apply to anyone
The law applies to permanent residents and residents of the Hong Kong area who violate the law on the Hong Kong area, as well as for crimes committed by Hong Kong permanent residents outside the city.

Unsurprisingly, the same applies to anyone who feels violated by the law, regardless of their nationality and where the alleged offense took place. Article 38 of the State of the Law: "This law applies to crimes ... who are committed against the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region from outside the region, which is not a permanent resident of the area."

Donald Clark of the George Washington University Law School wrote in his blog post: "There is no reason to suppose that I have any idea what it is: that every person on this planet is an outspoken jurist."

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